The protected natural areas are protected in order to preserve the natural and cultural heritage for present and future generations. Therefore, it is important to follow these rules of behavior:
I protection regime – strict protection; the use of natural resources and construction is prohibited. The activities are limited to scientific research, the activities of monitoring the natural resources and controlled visits for educational, recreational and cultural purposes. With the permission of authoritative Ministry, the activities allowed are within the goal of implementing the protection, rehabilitation and other necessary measures in case of fire, natural disasters and incidents, the appearance of plant and animal diseases, as well as the intense spreading of pest.
II protection regime – active protection; the introduction of invasive allochthonous species is prohibited, as well as the construction of tourist accommodation and facilities, nautical tourism and the construction of tourism infrastructure for the use of public ski resorts. Moreover, it prohibits the construction of ponds, the facility for breeding domestic animals and wildlife, collecting mushrooms, wild plant and animal species and the use of chemicals.
III protection regime – proactive protection; it prohibits the introduction of invasive allochthonous species, the formation of landfills; the construction of tourist accommodation facilities, public ski resorts. Hunting and fishing is prohibited, as well as the use of chemicals and other activities that may have a detrimental impact on nature and other valuable areas in the domain.
Possible injuries in nature
In order to have everything under control, routes should be well planed. Beside that, for the demanding trails good equipment is necessary, especially good footwear. Common injuries while staying in the nature are as follows:
Unconscious state – Loss of consciousness could be caused by many diseases and conditions. The depth of unconsciousness may be different and may vary in the same patient. If you come across a man lying motionless or in your presence suddenly fell to the ground, gently shake the shoulders and gave him a few questions, for example: What happened? Can you hear me? What is your name? At milder loss of consciousness, unconscious person can move parts of the body, or vomit. If there is no reaction, the person is in the state of the deepest loss of consciousness (coma). Procedure: call medical assistance or, if possible, send someone to do this so you do not waste time, check breathing and if needed start revival, if unconscious person breathes, turn him/her sideways, please check breathing; cover unconscious person to prevent hypothermia, the unconscious can be transported only in the supine (side) oriented position. DO NOT attempt to give food or drink to unconscious person. DO NOT leave him/her unattended.
Shock - Shock can result from an injury, heat, allergic reaction, infection or bleeding. There are several symptoms that can help you recognize a state of shock: the injured person's skin is cool, moist and pale, breathing is shallow and slow, and comes to a sudden drop in blood pressure. The view is stiff, and the pupils dilated. In such situation it is necessary to take the following steps: the injured person must lay on a flat surface and with elevated legs. A person in a state of shock must rest, while you look for the cause of this state. Place the person in a comfortable and warm accommodation, cover the injured.
Sunstroke – is caused by exposure of the head to high temperatures, or the influence of the sun's heat. Severe cases of sunstroke can be ended by lightheadedness and even coma state. Sunstroke starts with strong headache; the skin is dry, with a steady increase in body temperature. There may be dizziness, restlessness, drowsiness, and vomiting. The pulse is rapid, breathing shallow and fast. Among young people there may be fatigue and exhaustion, and with the elderly, confusion, and even loss of consciousness. Person that you suspect is suffering from sunstroke is to be immediately placed in the shade, or in the cooled, darkened room, loosening the clothes in order to get comfortable. Injured person should be gradually cooled by light water sprinkling and applying a cold compress (with ice) on the back of the neck and head. Body temperature constantly needs to be controlled and cooling can cease only when it returns to normal. Patients should be given cold drinks, but avoid those drinks that affect blood flow, especially coffee and alcohol. In more severe cases of loss of consciousness, confusion and sleepiness, it is urgent to call a doctor.
Burns - may appear as a result of exposure to heat, hot water, chemicals. The most important thing is that the injured part of the body is well cooled using tap water (not too cold) for at least 15 minutes. Previous to remove clothing from the injured part of the body. Do not pierce blisters! The sterile gauze should be put on the burnt spot, and should not be tightened with a bandage and serves as a protection against infection. If you experience severe pain, have an "ibuprofen". If burns cover large area (over 10 percent), with casualties a shock may occur: temporary loss of consciousness, a sudden drop in pressure, intense thirst. You should immediately call an ambulance. While you wait, you can give the injured 15 to 20 drops of valerian in half a glass of water and wrap him up in a clean linen sheet. In case of chemical burns, the affected place should be rinsed with water for 15 minutes. If the injury is cause by acids or bases (eg caustic soda or Quicklime) through the clothing, first rinse clothes, then carefully remove them from the injured place. If necessary, cut it with scissors. A place burnt by a base is to be covered with sterile gauze soaked in a solution of boric acid (teaspoon in a glass of water) or diluted, very weak solution of vinegar. If the burns are caused by an acid, soak gauze in the solution of baking-soda (teaspoon in a glass of water).
Wound – wound is every injury in which there is a discontinuity of the skin. If there is more bleeding, it should be stopped. Cover the wound with gauze and bandage. Do not remove foreign bodies pinned deep in tissue, but fix them in encountered position. In large wound on arm or leg immobilization is required. DO NOT rinse the wound with any liquids. Only minor, superficial wounds that do not bleed much should be rinsed with water. DO NOT put a powder, cream or ointment to the wound, clean it only with sterile gauze or a liquid disinfectants based on alcohol.Fracture - remove clothes or shoes. Lay a fractured limb on a flat surface which must include all adjacent joint, then set up another flat surface, place the top and secure it with a bandage. The injured person is to be transported carefully.
Insect stings - insect stings are local skin reactions to the toxins that are injected into the skin by a variety of insects. They are very common, and some people are more sensitive than others. The insect stings once or twice, leaving a small spot on the skin that itches for several days. It sometimes develops into blisters, especially on the legs. Most insect stings occur on exposed areas where insects can reach the skin. Groups of insect stings can sometimes occur on the body, where the insect was under the clothes. Main characteristic of insect stings is itching, that can be worsening in the heat. Cooling the bite with a cold, wet cloth can help.
Ticks - Ticks are most active in spring and fall, and are retained in the grass and bushes. Tick bite causes a small but certain risk of disease. They transmit many dangerous diseases, most notably Lyme disease. After a tick bite, it sometimes leaves an itchy red papule which disappears in a few days, but can be infected. If a part of the thick remains under the skin, it results in granuloma. The thick should be removed as soon as possible, being careful not to leave its parts behind. Today, the methods when watering the tick with oil, gasoline or petroleum (due to lack of oxygen it comes out by itself) are considered outdated, so try the following: using part of the thread tie a knot around the thick (around the neck) and twist the thread gradually tightening the noose. Very soon, when you twist the thread, the tick falls out without leaving severed body parts (head). Never twist, jerk, squeeze, crush or puncture the tick. Do not use any folk remedies such as petroleum jelly, gasoline or hot matches. If you are unsure of your ability, then you'd better go to the doctor so the insect is easily, painlessly and quickly removed from the skin. Always check your body to make sure there are no ticks after spending time outdoors. Redness remains for a day or two and fades away, and if you do not lose the redness and the edge begins to spread, seek medical advice.
Snake - Venomous snakes are recognized by the triangular head, pattern on its back or similar characteristics. Snakes do not attack man unless threatened by the man. At the place of the snakebite, two holes of snake teeth remain, soon followed by swelling and blue spots, feeling the numbness and severe pain. General effects of snake venom: Within an hour of the bite occurs: headache, nausea, thirst, sweating, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypotension, signs of hemolysis (jaundice and haemoglobinuria) and DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation) followed by consumptive coagulopathy (bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes, hematuria, hematemesis, melena, hemoptysis). Delirium, confusion and convulsions announce intracranial bleeding which is the most common immediate cause of death. Above the bite tourniquet tie something tightly enough to disable lymph flow (approximately up to the onset of venous stasis). Longitudinally through wounds from bites make a long incision up to 1 cm and deep to 0.5 cm and using a special pump or mouth (if there is no wound in the mouth) draine out the interstitial fluid. In this way it can suck up to half of the injected venom. Execute the injured person by immobilization of the body, thus substantially reducing the swelling of lymph and absorption of toxins. On the place of the bite stick a coating of alcohol and cool it with ice. Give the injured pain analgesics (by mouth, intramuscularly or intravenously). As soon as possible give the serum antiviperinum (intravenous or intramuscular), according to the protocol of testing for hypersensitivity. The serum antiviperinum is very effective against semi-venomous and poisonous snakes that occur in Europe.
Eye injuries caused by radiation – are most often injuries caused by solar radiation, specifically ultraviolet rays, also known as snow and sun blindness. It appears 6 hours after the trauma in the form of pain and sensitivity to light. First aid procedure begins with calming the victim, because usually this causes the injured to panic. The next step is to put dark glasses or keep the person in a darkened room. Compresses and painkillers may also help.
Frostbite - freezing – is related to tissue damage caused by the cold. Final state is called freezing, ie. due to prior freezing. The cold mostly damages the parts of the body that are farthest from the middle, so most often the fingers and toes suffer. According to the severity of frostbite there are three degrees. Initially the injured feels numbness and itching, this is followed by pain, burning. Frozen parts are cold, very pale, hard, stiff and insensitive. The injured should be transferred into shelter as soon as possible, preferably a warm one and should be given sweet drinks. Frostbites should be gradually heated. If there is a presumption that frostbites are severe, do not attempt to remove shoes and clothing, warmth is gained through gloves or socks. Also in severe cases the frozen parts of the body should be immersed in water up to 42 º C.